STATE BILL TO LAW PROCESSES

This page has links on where to find the process a bill goes through for each state.



Alabama

Official:Bill Process

STEP 1 – INTRODUCTION
Bill draft is filed in either the House or Senate.

STEP 2 – 1ST READING
Bill is read by title only.

STEP 3 – REFERRED TO COMMITTEE
Bill is sent to committee by the leaders of the House or Senate.

STEP 4 – COMMITTEE HEARING
Hearing is done on bill.

STEP 5 – COMMITTEE ACTION
Committee votes on bill and reports it back to the chamber as favorable or unfavorable. 

STEP 6 – 2ND READING
Bill is again read by title only.

STEP 7 – 3RD READING AND PASSAGE
Bill is fully read, discussed, possibly amended, and then voted on in the chamber of origin.

STEP 8 – SENT TO 2nd CHAMBER
Bill that passes 1st chamber is then sent to the other chamber and follows the same process.

STEP 9 – IF AMENDED – SENT BACK TO 1st CHAMBER FOR APPROVAL (IF UNAMENDED SEE STEP 12)
If a bill is amended in the 2nd chamber, it goes back to the 1st chamber for approval.  The chamber can either concur with (approve of) the amendments, not concur and let the bill die, or not concur and call a conference committee.  

STEP 10 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
Conference committee works out the differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill and includes their recommendations in a report. 

STEP 11 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE REPORT CONSIDERED
Both the House and Senate must vote whether to approve the conference committee report. 

STEP 12 – SENT TO GOVERNOR
If both chambers agree on the same version of the bill, it is sent to the Governor for signing. 

STEP 13 – GOVERNOR ACTION
Governor then either signed the bill into law, vetoes it or takes no action.  If no action is taken, the bill becomes law.   When the bill is sent during the last 5 days of session and no action is taken, it is pocket vetoed, or dead. 

STEP 14 – VETO OVERRIDE
If bill is vetoed, it is sent back to each chamber to determine whether to vote to override it.  If overridden, it becomes law notwithstanding the governor’s veto. 
 

 
Alaska

Official: Bill Process

STEP 1 – BILL DRAFTING
A legislator or committee submits a bill proposal to the Legislative Affairs Agency (Department of Law if from Governor) who then drafts it and returns it to them. 

STEP 2 - INTRODUCTION
Bill is filed in either the House or Senate.

STEP 3 – 1ST READING
Bill is read by title only.

STEP 4 – REFERRED TO COMMITTEE
Bill is sent to committee.

STEP 5 – COMMITTEE HEARING
Hearing is done on bill.  At this time, other bills can be combined with it. 

STEP 6 – COMMITTEE ACTION
Committee votes on bill and reports it back to the chamber.  It can either pass it as is or have a substitute or amendments added. 

STEP 7 – REFERRED TO NEXT COMMITTEE (Skip if none)
Bill is then referred to the next committee and follows the same process.

STEP 8 – RULES COMMITTEE
Bill is sent to the Rules committee, which can hold hearings and make amendments.  If approved by Rules, it puts the bill on the calendar for a 2nd reading.

STEP 9 – 2ND READING
Bill is again read by title only and any amendments are introduced and voted on.  Any amendments approved are added to bill. 

STEP 10 – 3RD READING AND PASSAGE
Bill is fully read and then voted on in the chamber of origin.

STEP 11 – SENT TO 2nd CHAMBER
If the bill passes the 1st chamber is then sent to the other chamber and follows the same process.

STEP 12 – IF AMENDED – SENT BACK TO 1st CHAMBER FOR APPROVAL (IF UNAMENDED SEE STEP 15)
If a bill is amended in the 2nd chamber, it goes back to the 1st chamber for approval.  The chamber can either concur with (approve of) the amendments or not concur and call a conference committee.  

STEP 13 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
Conference committee works out the differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill and includes their recommendations in a report. 

STEP 14 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE REPORT CONSIDERED
Both the House and Senate must vote whether to approve the conference committee report. 

STEP 15 – SENT TO GOVERNOR
If both chambers agree on the same version of the bill, it is sent to the Governor for signing. 

STEP 13 – GOVERNOR ACTION
Governor then either signs the bill into law, vetoes it or takes no action.  If no action is taken, the bill becomes law.  

STEP 14 – VETO OVERRIDE
If bill is vetoed, it is sent back to each chamber to determine whether to vote to override it.  If overridden, it becomes law. 
 


Arizona

Official:

Simple Bill Process

Advanced Bill Process


STEP 1 – BILL DRAFTING
A legislator or committee submits a bill proposal to the Legislative Council who then drafts it and returns it to them. 

STEP 2 - INTRODUCTION
Bill is filed in either the House or Senate and given a number.

STEP 3 – 1ST READING
Bill is read by title only. The next step varies depending on whether the bill is in the House or Senate. 

STEP 4 – 2ND READING (Senate only)
In the Senate, the bill has a 2nd reading by title next. 

STEP 5 – REFERRED TO COMMITTEE
Bill is sent to committee.

STEP 6 – SUBCOMMITTEE
The committee may refer the bill to a subcommittee either before or after the committee hearing.  The subcommittee then discusses it, proposes what action to take on it, and sends it back to committee.  

STEP 7 – COMMITTEE HEARING
Hearing is either done on bill before or after being sent to any subcommittee.  Amendments can be introduced.  A common amendment is called the strike everything amendment which allows the entire bill to be replaced with another bill, even one not introduced in time.    

STEP 8 – COMMITTEE ACTION
Committee votes on the amendments and then the bill and reports it back to the chamber. 

STEP 9 – REFERRED TO NEXT COMMITTEE (Skip if none)
Bill is often then referred to a 2nd committee where it follows the same process.

STEP 10 – RULES COMMITTEE
Bill is sent to the Rules committee, which determines if the bill is constitutional and in proper form. 

STEP 11 – 2ND READING (House only)
In the House, the bill goes to a 2nd reading by title only. 

STEP 12 – CAUCUS
In Arizona, bills that pass their committee(s) are sent to a caucus for each political party (Democratic Caucus and Republican Caucus).  This gives the entire House or Senate membership of each political party to learn about the bills passed and state their stance on it. 

STEP 13 – CONSENT CALENDAR (Senate only)
A bill in the Senate if approved by Rules and unamended by committee CAN be placed on the Consent Calendar and go straight to 3rd reading and skip Step 13.

STEP 14 – COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE
The bill then goes to the Committee of the Whole (committee of the entire House or Senate) where debate takes place and amendments can be introduced and passed.  The committee then votes to pass the bill with any approved amendments on to the regular House or Senate. 

Bill is again read by title only and any amendments are introduced and voted on.  Any amendments approved are added to bill. 

STEP 15 – 3RD READING AND PASSAGE
Bill is read and then voted on in the chamber of origin.

STEP 16 – SENT TO 2nd CHAMBER
If the bill passes the 1st chamber is then sent to the other chamber and follows the same process.

STEP 17 – IF AMENDED – SENT BACK TO 1st CHAMBER FOR APPROVAL (IF UNAMENDED SEE STEP 20)
If a bill is amended in the 2nd chamber, it goes back to the 1st chamber for approval.  The chamber can either concur with (approve of) the amendments or not concur and call a conference committee.  

STEP 18 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE
Conference committee works out the differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill and includes their recommendations in a report. 

STEP 19 – CONFERENCE COMMITTEE REPORT CONSIDERED
Both the House and Senate must vote whether to approve the conference committee report. 

STEP 20 – SENT TO GOVERNOR
If both chambers agree on the same version of the bill, it is sent to the Governor for signing. 

STEP 21 – GOVERNOR ACTION
Governor then either signs the bill into law, vetoes it or takes no action.  If no action is taken, the bill becomes law.  

STEP 22 – VETO OVERRIDE
If bill is vetoed and the legislature adjourned, the bill is dead.  If it is still in session, it is sent back to each chamber to determine whether to vote to override it.  If overridden, it becomes law. 



Arkansas

Official: Bill Process





California

Official:

Simple Bill Process
Advanced
Bill Process


 


Colorado

Official: Bill Process


 

Connecticut

Official: Bill Process






 
Delaware

Official: Bill Process





 


Florida

Official: Bill Process






Georgia

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Hawaii

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Idaho

Official: Bill Process




Illinois

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Indiana

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Iowa

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Kansas

Official: Bill Process






Kentucky

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Louisiana

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Maine

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Maryland

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Massachusetts

Official: Bill Process

 





Michigan

Official: Bill Process







Minnesota

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Mississippi

Official: Bill Process





Missouri

Official:

Simple Bill Process
Advanced Bill Process






Montana

Official: Bill Process






Nebraska

Official: Bill Process





Nevada

Official: Bill Process




 

New Hampshire

Official: Bill Process




 

New Jersey

Official: Bill Process



 


New Mexico

Official: Bill Process








New York

Official: Bill Process







North Carolina

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North Dakota

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Ohio

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Oklahoma

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Oregon

Official: Bill Process





Pennsylvania

Official: Bill Process




 


Rhode Island

Official: Bill Process





 


South Carolina

Official:

Simple Bill Process

Advanced Bill Process







South Dakota

Official: Bill Process



 


Tennessee

Official: Bill Process





 

Texas

Official: Bill Process





 

Utah

Official: Bill Process






Vermont

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Virginia

Official: Bill Process






Washington

Official: Bill Process





 

West Virginia

Official: Bill Process




 

Wisconsin

Official: Bill Process






Wyoming

Official: Bill Process