In Canada, animals are considered personal property, and all authority to regulate personal property is given to the provinces and territories under the Canadian Constitution Act.
Alberta - Has native list of non-license animals that can be possessed and live trapped and caught without a permit.
The Wildlife Act also has a list of controlled animals (exotic) that require a special permit to own, which are only for zoos and research. The list includes primates, canines (except wolf dogs), felines (except TICA domestic hybrids F4+), procyonids, marsupials, mustelids, bears, skunks, elephants, viverrids, bats, hyenas and aardwolves, various ungulates and rodents, and more.
British Columbia – BC bans exotic animals under the Controlled Alien Species Regulation of 2009 which prohibits breeding except a zoo or education or research institution and possession with a permit for animals owned before March 16, 2009. For more information, click here.
New Brunswick - The Fish and Wildlife Act require a permit to import and possess exotic wildlife except for those species in Regulation 92-74, a copy of which can be found HERE.
Newfoundland and Labrador - The Wildlife Act requires a license for possession of wild animals in captivity and for importation other than those listed HERE. Does not issue permits for native wildlife as pets.
Nova Scotia - Under authority of the Wildlife Act, the province has a list of species exempt from the law that do not require a permit for import or possession and a list of species prohibited for import or possession. All others require a Captive Wildlife Permit for possession and an Import Permit for import. See lists HERE.
Ontario - The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act requires a license to keep live game wildlife or live specially protected wildlife in captivity except for game reptiles and amphibians for consumption, keeping a single game reptile or amphibian or specially protected mammal, invertebrate or reptile or amphibian for education not endangered or at risk, rehabilitating or caring for young, injured or sick wildlife or under authority of the Minister. It also requires a license to breed such wildlife except under authority of the Minister. Such licenses are not for pets.
Prince Edward Island - Bans native species as pets. There is an extensive prohibited wildlife list of species that may not be sold or possessed which includes nonhuman primates, nondomestic cats, dogs, and ungulates, procyonids, mustelids except ferrets, viverrids, marsupials except sugar gliders, amphibians, crocodilians, venomous species and more. Other approved species may be allowed with a license.
Quebec – Captive animals are regulated under the Respecting Animals in Captivity law which requires a license for species not listed or not exempted. For more information, click here. Their care is regulated under the Animal Health Protection Act. For more information, click here.
Import of animals is governed by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and the Quarantine Act 1908. Many states and territories have their own laws regulating possession of such animals. For a summary, click here.
PERMIT required for dangerous wild animals under the Dangerous Wild Animal Act of 1976, as amended in 2007, which was enacted by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA).
Dangerous Wild Animal Act of 1976
Schedule of Dangerous Wild Animals which Require a Permit
Licenses will be given by local authorities. Where the local authority grant a license it shall impose conditions on the license covering issues such as:
-a requirement that the animal be kept only by a person or persons named on the license;
-restrictions on the movement of the animal from the premises as specified on the license; and
-a requirement that the license holder has a current insurance policy which ensures both license holders and others against any liability caused by the animal.
Animal Welfare Act 2006- Owners of Animals must follow the regulations set forth in the Animal Welfare Act 2006.
The Federal National Council approved a draft bill to ban dangerous wild animals: All marsupials, primates, edentata, dogs except pet dogs, cats except domestic and hybrid pet cats, hyenas, mustelids, procyonids, bears, viverrids, panda, hyraxes, bats, colugo, pangolin, rodents except for research, equine except domestic, rhinos, tapirs, pronghorn, bovids except domestic, wild camels, cervids, giraffe, pig species, Family Tayassuidae, pinneds, elephants, manatees, struthio, cassawary, emu, vultures, seagulls, penguins, crocodilians, lizards, snakes, spiders, scorpions. It also bans certain dogs including pit bulls, Tosa, rottweilers, German shepherds, huskies, Alaskan malamutes, doberman pinschers, chows, Presa canarios, boxers, and dalmatians. Current owners have six months to give up their animals. (2016)